WHO Current Immunization Schedule Table In Nigeria

Immunization is a very important way of preventing dangerous and sometimes life threatening diseases in Nigeria.

The WHO Word Health Organization has since released immunization schedule in Nigeria,in an effort to ensure that 
babies and vulnerable adults are vaccinated in other to stop the spread of dangerous communicable diseases In Nigeria.

WHO Immunization Schedule Table In Nigeria

Q1: What is immunization? 

A: Immunization is the process whereby an individual is made immune or resistant to a particular infectious disease,by the administration of a vaccine.

The Vaccine administered will stimulate the individuals immune system in other to protect the person against that particular infection or disease.
It is estimated that Immunization has helped to prevent between 2 and 3 million deaths each year. After Immunization, the person’s immune system becomes fortified against the infection. 

Q2: What type of infections/diseases can immunization prevent in Nigeria?

A: Basically some life threatening diseases like:
  • Pneumonia 
  • Rubella
  • Mumps
  • Measles
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Whooping cough
  • Hepatitis B
  • Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib)
  • Tetanus Diphtheria

Before the discovery of vaccines and immunization,infected people could only become immune to an infectious disease by surviving the disease,the body's natural immune system will produce antibodies against that specific disease,most often the
 infected person won't survive the bout and in some kind of severe infections like polio,the individual might become crippled or disabled for life.

Q3: What are the types of immunization?

A: They are two types of immunization namely: Passive and Active immunization 

Active immunization:

This is our own natural form of defense against diseases,for example when you suffer an infection from a particular disease,your immune system will create antibodies and other defenses against the microbe.

Artificial active immunization is where the disease causing microbe is injected into the person before they are able to create the defense naturally. 

Examples of live, attenuated vaccines include:
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Rubella
  • MMR
  • Yellow fever
  • Varicella
  • Rotavirus
  • Influenza (LAIV).

Passive immunization

Occurs when a pre-synthesized elements of the immune system are transferred to a person so that the body does not need to produce these elements itself.

antibodies can be used for passive immunization.This type of immunization begins to work immediately,but it is short lived because its naturally broken down by the body system.
It also occurs physiologically,in this case,antibodies are transferred from mother to her unborn child during pregnancy and after pregnancy to protect the baby.

Artificial passive immunization is administered by injection and is usually used if there is a recent outbreak of a particular disease or if you have exposed yourself to a particular disease.
Remember that injection given to you after an injury to prevent tetanus?
That is an example of Artificial passive immunization.

Immunization protects children and adults from deadly diseases when they can come in contact with infected individuals. 

Endeavor to make sure that your child is immunized, also if you have had a surgery,or above 65 years,or maybe your a young adult but you keep on having recurring infections example recurrent chest infection like pneumonia,ask your doctor if you can be vaccinated.

WHO Current Immunization Schedule Table In Nigeria

Most immunization vaccines are either injected or administered in a drop form that can be swallowed.

Read Also: Personalized Medicine In Nigeria 

It's is a very safe way of help the body produce antibodies to fight a disease without catching the disease.

World Health Organization (WHO) Immunization Schedule in Nigeria:
  • Vaccine: BCG  (Tuberculosis)
  • Age of Vaccination: Birth 
  • Description of The Infectious Disease: 
  • Disease Airborne. Usually causes pulmonary infection, but can spread to many other organs, causing serious illness, death and disability. An untreated person with active TB can infect on average between 10 and 15 people every year.. In 2005, 30% of global 2.5 million new infections. (WHO) 
  • Vaccine: DTwP (Pertussis / Whooping Cough)
  • Age of vaccination:6,10,14 weeks
  • Description of The Infectious Disease:
  • Pertussis,or whooping cough, is a disease of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria that live in the mouth, nose, and throat. Many children who contract pertussis have coughing spells that last four to eight weeks.Very dangerous in infants.
  • In 2000, approximately 39 million new cases emerged and the disease claimed 297,000 lives worldwide. 
  • Diphtheria: an upper respiratory tract infection with
  • throat swelling and an adherent membrane that can cause death by asphyxiation.
  • Vaccine: Hepatitis B
  • Age of vaccination:Birth;10,16 weeks
  • Description of The Infectious Disease:
  • Hepatitis B is a potentially life threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is a major global health problem and the most serious type of viral hepatitis. It can cause chronic liver disease and put s people at high risk of death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Hepatiti s B  3290 cents Worldwide, an estimated two billion people have been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and more than 350 million have chronic liver infection.Hepatitis B vaccine is 95% effective in preventing HBV infection and its chronic consequences.

  • Vaccine: Measles 
  • Age of vaccination: 9 months
  • Description of The Infectious Disease:
  • Measles is a highly contagious,serious disease caused by a virus. It remains a leading cause of death among young children globally, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. 

  • Vaccine: OPV (Polio) 
  • Age of vaccination: 6, 10, 16 weeks 
  • Description of The Infectious Disease:
  • Mainly affects children under five years of age. One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis. Among those paralyzed, 5% to 10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilized.
  • Vaccine: TT (Tetanus toxoid) 
  • Age of vaccination: 1st contact pregnancy; TT2 +6 months after; TT3 +1 year after
  • Description of The Infectious Disease:
  • Tetanus is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, the spores of which are widespread in the environment. The disease is caused by the action of a neurotoxin,produced by the bacteria when they grow in the absence of oxygen, e.g. in dirty wounds or in the umbilical cord if it is cut with a non instrument. 
  • Tetanus is characterized by muscle spasms, initially in the jaw muscles. As the disease progresses,may trigger generalized tetanic seizure like activity, which contributes to serious complications and eventually death unless supportive treatment is given. 
  • Tetanus can be prevented by the administration of tetanus toxoid, which induces specific antitoxins.
  • To prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus, tetanus toxoid needs is to be given to the mother before or during pregnancy,clean delivery and cord care needs to be e ensured. 
  • Vaccine: Yellow Fever 
  • Age of vaccination: 9 months
  • Description of The Infectious Disease:
  • Yellow fever is a viral disease, found in tropical regions of Africa and the Americas.
  • --
  • There is no specific treatment for yellow fever. Vaccination is highly recommended as a preventive measure for travelers and people living in endemic countries.
Vaccine preventable diseases account for approximately 22% of child deaths in Nigeria, amounting to over 200,000 deaths per year. 
  • International donor communities have recognized the need for control of childhood illnesses and polio eradication, creating an opportune time to control vaccine preventable illnesses in the region. 
  • Resistance to polio vaccine is reportedly persisting in some regions, however some recent reports suggest that in some communities there is a greater felt need for prevention of diseases that are far more common in the communities, such as measles, malaria and meningitis.
  • This suggests that an integrated and permanent system for delivery of routine vaccination services may be more acceptable to some sectors of the populations that have resisted polio eradication efforts.

Source: WHO - World Health Organization 


Post a Comment